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Control of Electric Machine Drive Systems Pdf

control of electric machine drive system
control of electric machine drive system

Table of Contents

Ebook contents

1.1.1 Electric Machine Drive System 4
1.1.2 Trend of Development of Electric Machine Drive System 5
1.1.3 Trend of Development of Power Semiconductor 7
1.1.4 Trend of Development of Control Electronics 8
1.2 Basics of Mechanics 8
1.2.1 Basic Laws 9
1.2.2 Force and Torque 9
1.2.3 Moment of Inertia of a Rotating Body 11
1.2.4 Equations of Motion for a Rigid Body 13
1.2.5 Power and Energy 17
1.2.6 Continuity of Physical Variables 18
1.3 Torque Speed Curve of Typical Mechanical Loads 18
1.3.1 Fan, Pump, and Blower 18
1.3.2 Hoisting Load; Crane, Elevator 20
1.3.3 Traction Load (Electric Vehicle, Electric Train) 21
1.3.4 Tension Control Load 23
Problems 24
References 35
2 Basic Structure and Modeling of Electric Machines
and Power Converters 36


2.1 Structure and Modeling of DC Machine 36
2.2 Analysis of Steady-State Operation 41
2.2.1 Separately Excited Shunt Machine 42
2.2.2 Series Excited DC Machine 45
2.3 Analysis of Transient State of DC Machine 46
2.3.1 Separately Excited Shunt Machine 47
2.4 Power Electronic Circuit to Drive DC Machine 50
2.4.1 Static Ward–Leonard System 51
2.4.2 Four-Quadrants Chopper System 52
2.5 Rotating Magnetic Motive Force 53
2.6 Steady-State Analysis of a Synchronous Machine 58
vii
2.7 Linear Electric Machine 62
2.8 Capability Curve of Synchronous Machine 63
2.8.1 Round Rotor Synchronous Machine with Field Winding 63
2.8.2 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine 64
2.9 Parameter Variation of Synchronous Machine 66
2.9.1 Stator and Field Winding Resistance 66
2.9.2 Synchronous Inductance 66
2.9.3 Back EMF Constant 67
2.10 Steady-State Analysis of Induction Machine 70
2.10.1 Steady-State Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Machine 72
2.10.2 Constant Air Gap Flux Operation 77
2.11 Generator Operation of an Induction Machine 79
2.12 Variation of Parameters of an Induction Machine 81
2.12.1 Variation of Rotor Resistance, Rr 81
2.12.2 Variation of Rotor Leakage Inductance, Llr 82
2.12.3 Variation of Stator Resistance, Rs 82
2.12.4 Variation of Stator Leakage Inductance, Lls 83
2.12.5 Variation of Excitation Inductance, Lm 84
2.12.6 Variation of Resistance Representing Iron Loss, Rm 84


2.13 Classification of Induction Machines According
to Speed–Torque Characteristics 84
2.14 Quasi-Transient State Analysis 87
2.15 Capability Curve of an Induction Machine 88
2.16 Comparison of AC Machine and DC Machine 90
2.16.1 Comparison of a Squirrel Cage Induction Machine and a Separately
Excited DC Machine 90
2.16.2 Comparison of a Permanent Magnet AC Machine and a Separately
Excited DC Machine 92
2.17 Variable-Speed Control of Induction Machine Based on
Steady-State Characteristics 92
2.17.1 Variable Speed Control of Induction Machine by Controlling
Terminal Voltage 93
2.17.2 Variable Speed Control of Induction Machine Based on
Constant Air-Gap Flux (V=F) Control 94
2.17.3 Variable Speed Control of Induction Machine Based on Actual
Speed Feedback 95
2.17.4 Enhancement of Constant Air-Gap Flux Control with Feedback
of Magnitude of Stator Current 96
2.18 Modeling of Power Converters 96
2.18.1 Three-Phase Diode/Thyristor Rectifier 97
2.18.2 PWM Boost Rectifier 98
2.18.3 Two-Quadrants Bidirectional DC/DC Converter 101
2.18.4 Four-Quadrants DC/DC Converter 102
2.18.5 Three-Phase PWM Inverter 103
2.18.6 Matrix Converter 105
2.19 Parameter Conversion Using Per Unit Method 106
Problems 108
References 114
viii Contents
3 Reference Frame Transformation and Transient State Analysis
of Three-Phase AC Machines 116
3.1 Complex Vector 117
3.2 d–q–n Modeling of an Induction Machine Based on Complex
Space Vector 119
3.2.1 Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Machine at d–q–n AXIS 120
3.2.2 Torque of the Induction Machine 125
3.3 d–q–n Modeling of a Synchronous Machine Based on Complex
Space Vector 128
3.3.1 Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Machine at d–q–n AXIS 128
3.3.2 Torque of a Synchronous Machine 138
3.3.3 Equivalent Circuit and Torque of a Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Machine 140
3.3.4 Synchronous Reluctance Machine (SynRM) 144
Problems 146
References 153
4 Design of Regulators for Electric Machines and Power Converters 154
4.1 Active Damping 157


4.2 Current Regulator 158
4.2.1 Measurement of Current 158
4.2.2 Current Regulator for Three-Phase-Controlled Rectifier 161
4.2.3 Current Regulator for a DC Machine Driven by a PWM Chopper 166
4.2.4 Anti-Wind-Up 170
4.2.5 AC Current Regulator 173
4.3 Speed Regulator 179
4.3.1 Measurement of Speed/Position of Rotor of an Electric Machine 179
4.3.2 Estimation of Speed with Incremental Encoder 182
4.3.3 Estimation of Speed by a State Observer 189
4.3.4 PI/IP Speed Regulator 198
4.3.5 Enhancement of Speed Control Performance with Acceleration
Information 204
4.3.6 Speed Regulator with Anti-Wind-Up Controller 206
4.4 Position Regulator 208
4.4.1 Proportional–Proportional and Integral (P–PI) Regulator 208
4.4.2 Feed-Forwarding of Speed Reference
and Acceleration Reference 209
4.5 Detection of Phase Angle of AC Voltage 210
4.5.1 Detection of Phase Angle on Synchronous Reference Frame 210
4.5.2 Detection of Phase Angle Using Positive Sequence Voltage
on Synchronous Reference Frame 213
4.6 Voltage Regulator 215
4.6.1 Voltage Regulator for DC Link of PWM Boost Rectifier 215
Problems 218
References 228
Contents ix
5 Vector Control 230
5.1 Instantaneous Torque Control 231
5.1.1 Separately Excited DC Machine 231
5.1.2 Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (SMPMSM) 233
5.1.3 Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) 235
5.2 Vector Control of Induction Machine 236
5.2.1 Direct Vector Control 237
5.2.2 Indirect Vector Control 243


5.3 Rotor Flux Linkage Estimator 245
5.3.1 Voltage Model Based on Stator Voltage Equation of an
Induction Machine 245
5.3.2 Current Model Based on Rotor Voltage Equation of an
Induction Machine 246
5.3.3 Hybrid Rotor Flux Linkage Estimator 247
5.3.4 Enhanced Hybrid Estimator 248
5.4 Flux Weakening Control 249
5.4.1 Constraints of Voltage and Current to AC Machine 249
5.4.2 Operating Region of Permanent Magnet AC Machine in Current
Plane at Rotor Reference Frame 250
5.4.3 Flux Weakening Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Machine 257
5.4.4 Flux Weakening Control of Induction Machine 262
5.4.5 Flux Regulator of Induction Machine 267
Problems 269
References 281
6 Position/Speed Sensorless Control of AC Machines 283
6.1 Sensorless Control of Induction Machine 286
6.1.1 Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) 286
6.1.2 Adaptive Speed Observer (ASO) 291
6.2 Sensorless Control of Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Machine (SMPMSM) 297
6.3 Sensorless Control of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Machine (IPMSM) 299
6.4 Sensorless Control Employing High-Frequency Signal Injection 302
6.4.1. Inherently Salient Rotor Machine 304
6.4.2 AC Machine with Nonsalient Rotor 305
Problems 317
References 320
7 Practical Issues 324
7.1 Output Voltage Distortion Due to Dead Time and Its
Compensation 324
7.1.1 Compensation of Dead Time Effect 325
x Contents
7.1.2 Zero Current Clamping (ZCC) 327
7.1.3 Voltage Distortion Due to Stray Capacitance of Semiconductor
Switches 327
7.1.4 Prediction of Switching Instant 330
7.2 Measurement of Phase Current 334
7.2.1 Modeling of Time Delay of Current Measurement System 334
7.2.2 Offset and Scale Errors in Current Measurement 337
7.3 Problems Due to Digital Signal Processing of Current
Regulation Loop 342
7.3.1 Modeling and Compensation of Current Regulation Error
Due to Digital Delay 342
7.3.2 Error in Current Sampling 346
Problems 350
References 353
Appendix A Measurement and Estimation of Parameters of Electric
Machinery 354
A.1 Parameter Estimation 354
A.1.1 DC Machine 355
A.1.2 Estimation of Parameters of Induction Machine 357
A.2 Parameter Estimation of Electric Machines Using Regulators
of Drive System 361
A.2.1 Feedback Control System 361
A.2.2 Back EMF Constant of DC Machine, K 363
A.2.3 Stator Winding Resistance of Three-Phase AC Machine, Rs 363
A.2.4 Induction Machine Parameters 365
A.2.5 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine 370
A.3 Estimation of Mechanical Parameters 374
A.3.1 Estimation Based on Mechanical Equation 374
A.3.2 Estimation Using Integral Process 376
References 380
Appendix B d–q Modeling Using Matrix Equations 381
B.1 Reference Frame and Transformation Matrix 381
B.2 d–q Modeling of Induction Machine Using Transformation
Matrix 386
B.3 d–q Modeling of Synchronous Machine Using Transformation
Matrix 390

Details about the Ebook

Title: Control of Electric machine drive system

Language: English

Size: 14 MB

Pages: 413

Format: PDF

Category: Electrical Engineering

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Daniel Esan

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