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Fundamental Electrical and Electronic Principles

fundamental electrical and electronics
fundamental electrical and electronics

This Ebook is written and published by Christopher R Robertson, the purpose of his writing the ebook is to share knowledge of some fundamental things all electrical/electronics hobbyists must know is comprised of vital and useful information

The Ebook content
1 Fundamentals …………………………………………………………………1
1.1 Units ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
1.2 Standard Form Notation …………………………………………………………………………………………2
1.3 ‘ Scientific ’ Notation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………2
1.4 Conversion of Areas and Volumes ………………………………………………………………………4
1.5 Graphs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
1.6 Basic Electrical Concepts ………………………………………………………………………………………..7
1.7 Communication ………………………………………………………………………………………………………26
Summary of Equations …………………………………………………………………………………………29


Assignment Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………30
2 D.C. Circuits ………………………………………………………………………………… 31
2.1 Resistors in Series ……………………………………………………………………………………………………31
2.2 Resistors in Parallel …………………………………………………………………………………………………35
2.3 Potential Divider ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..40
2.4 Current Divider ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41
2.5 Series/Parallel Combinations ……………………………………………………………………………..43
2.6 Kirchhoff ’ s Current Law ………………………………………………………………………………………..48
2.7 Kirchhoff ’ s Voltage Law ………………………………………………………………………………………..49
2.8 The Wheatstone Bridge Network ……………………………………………………………………..55
2.9 The Wheatstone Bridge Instrument ………………………………………………………………..63
2.10 The Slidewire Potentiometer ……………………………………………………………………………..65
Summary of Equations …………………………………………………………………………………………68
Assignment Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………69
Suggested Practical Assignments ……………………………………………………………………72
3 Electric Fields and Capacitors ……………………………………………. 75
3.1 Coulomb ’ s Law ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..75
3.2 Electric Fields ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………76
3.3 Electric Field Strength (E) …………………………………………………………………………………….78
3.4 Electric Flux () and Flux Density (D) ……………………………………………………………..79
3.5 The Charging Process and Potential Gradient …………………………………………….80


3.6 Capacitance (C) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….83
3.7 Capacitors ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….84
3.8 Permittivity of Free Space (ε0) ……………………………………………………………………………84
3.9 Relative Permittivity (εr) ………………………………………………………………………………………..84
3.10 Absolute Permittivity (ε) ………………………………………………………………………………………85
Contents
v
vi Contents
3.11 Calculating Capacitor Values ………………………………………………………………………………85
3.12 Capacitors in Parallel ……………………………………………………………………………………………..87
3.13 Capacitors in Series ………………………………………………………………………………………………..89
3.14 Series/Parallel Combinations ……………………………………………………………………………..92
3.15 Multiplate Capacitors ……………………………………………………………………………………………95
3.16 Energy Stored …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..97
3.17 Dielectric Strength and Working Voltage …………………………………………………..101
3.18 Capacitor Types …………………………………………………………………………………………………….102
Summary of Equations ………………………………………………………………………………………105
Assignment Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………107
Suggested Practical Assignment …………………………………………………………………..110
4 Magnetic Fields and Circuits ……………………………………………..111
4.1 Magnetic Materials ………………………………………………………………………………………………111
4.2 Magnetic Fields …………………………………………………………………………………………………….111
4.3 The Magnetic Circuit …………………………………………………………………………………………..114
4.4 Magnetic Flux and Flux Density ……………………………………………………………………..115
4.5 Magnetomotive Force (mmf ) …………………………………………………………………………116
4.6 Magnetic Field Strength ……………………………………………………………………………………117
4.7 Permeability of Free Space (0) ………………………………………………………………………118
4.8 Relative Permeability (r) …………………………………………………………………………………..119
4.9 Absolute Permeability () …………………………………………………………………………………119
4.10 Magnetisation (B/H) Curve ……………………………………………………………………………….122
4.11 Composite Series Magnetic Circuits …………………………………………………………….126
4.12 Reluctance (S) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..128
4.13 Comparison of Electrical, Magnetic and Electrostatic Quantities ……..131
4.14 Magnetic Hysteresis ……………………………………………………………………………………………132
4.15 Parallel Magnetic Circuits ………………………………………………………………………………….134
Summary of Equations ………………………………………………………………………………………135
Assignment Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………136
Suggested Practical Assignments …………………………………………………………………138
5 Electromagnetism ……………………………………………………………….. 141
5.1 Faraday ’ s Law of Electromagnetic Induction …………………………………………….141
5.2 Lenz ’ s Law ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….144
5.3 Fleming ’ s Righthand Rule …………………………………………………………………………………144
5.4 EMF Induced in a Single Straight Conductor ……………………………………………147


5.5 Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor ……………………………………………………..151
5.6 The Motor Principle …………………………………………………………………………………………….153
5.7 Force between Parallel Conductors ……………………………………………………………..156
5.8 The Moving Coil Meter ………………………………………………………………………………………158
5.9 Shunts and Multipliers ……………………………………………………………………………………….162
5.10 Shunts ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………162
5.11 Multipliers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….163
Contents vii
5.12 Figure of Merit and Loading Eff ect ……………………………………………………………….166
5.13 The Ohmmeter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..170
5.14 Wattmeter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….171
5.15 Eddy Currents ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..172
5.16 Self and Mutual Inductance …………………………………………………………………………….174
5.17 Self-Inductance …………………………………………………………………………………………………….175
5.18 Self-Inductance and Flux Linkages ……………………………………………………………….176
5.19 Factors Aff ecting Inductance ………………………………………………………………………….179
5.20 Mutual Inductance ………………………………………………………………………………………………180
5.21 Relationship between Self- and Mutual-Inductance ……………………………..182
5.22 Energy Stored ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..184
5.23 The Transformer Principle …………………………………………………………………………………186
5.24 Transformer Voltage and Current Ratios ……………………………………………………..188
Summary of Equations ………………………………………………………………………………………191
Assignment Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………192
Suggested Practical Assignments …………………………………………………………………195
6 Alternating Quantities ………………………………………………………. 197
6.1 Production of an Alternating Waveform …………………………………………………….197
6.2 Angular Velocity and Frequency ……………………………………………………………………200
6.3 Standard Expression for an Alternating Quantity ……………………………………200
6.4 Average Value ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..203
6.5 r.m.s. Value ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………205
6.6 Peak Factor ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..206
6.7 Form Factor …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….207
6.8 Rectifi ers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….208
6.9 Half-wave Rectifi er ………………………………………………………………………………………………209
6.10 Full-wave Bridge Rectifi er …………………………………………………………………………………210
6.11 Rectifi er Moving Coil Meter ……………………………………………………………………………..212
6.12 Phase and Phase Angle ……………………………………………………………………………………..213
6.13 Phasor Representation ……………………………………………………………………………………….216
6.14 Addition of Alternating Quantities ………………………………………………………………..219
6.15 The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope ……………………………………………………………………….224
6.16 Operation of the Oscilloscope ………………………………………………………………………..226
6.17 Dual Beam Oscilloscopes ………………………………………………………………………………….228
Summary of Equations ………………………………………………………………………………………229
Assignment Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………230
Suggested Practical Assignments …………………………………………………………………232
7 D.C. Machines ………………………………………………………………………… 233
7.1 Motor/Generator Duality ………………………………………………………………………………….233
7.2 The Generation of d.c. Voltage ………………………………………………………………………..235
7.3 Construction of d.c. Machines ……………………………………………………………………….. 238
7.4 Classifi cation of Generators ……………………………………………………………………………..238
viii Contents


7.5 Separately Excited Generator ………………………………………………………………………….239
7.6 Shunt Generator …………………………………………………………………………………………………..240
7.7 Series Generator …………………………………………………………………………………………………..242
7.8 D. C. Motors ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………244
7.9 Shunt Motor …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..244
7.10 Series Motor …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..245
Summary of Equations ………………………………………………………………………………………247
Assignment Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………248
8 D.C. Transients ……………………………………………………………………….. 249
8.1 Capacitor-Resistor Series Circuit (Charging) ………………………………………………249
8.2 Capacitor-Resistor Series Circuit (Discharging) ………………………………………..253
8.3 Inductor-Resistor Series Circuit (Connection to Supply) ………………………256
8.4 Inductor-Resistor Series Circuit (Disconnection) ……………………………………..259
Summary of Equations ………………………………………………………………………………………260
Assignment Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………261
Suggested Practical Assignments …………………………………………………………………262
9 Semiconductor Theory and Devices …………………………….. 263
9.1 Atomic Structure ………………………………………………………………………………………………….263
9.2 Intrinsic (Pure) Semiconductors ……………………………………………………………………..264
9.3 Electron-Hole Pair Generation and Recombination ……………………………….266
9.4 Conduction in Intrinsic Semiconductors ……………………………………………………267
9.5 Extrinsic (Impure) Semiconductors ………………………………………………………………268
9.6 n-type Semiconductor ………………………………………………………………………………………268
9.7 p-type Semiconductor ………………………………………………………………………………………270
9.8 The p-n Junction ………………………………………………………………………………………………….271
9.9 The p-n Junction Diode …………………………………………………………………………………….272
9.10 Forward-biased Diode ……………………………………………………………………………………….273
9.11 Reverse-biased Diode ………………………………………………………………………………………..273
9.12 Diode Characteristics ………………………………………………………………………………………….274
9.13 The Zener Diode …………………………………………………………………………………………………..276
Assignment Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………281
Suggested Practical Assignments …………………………………………………………………282
Appendix A: SI Units and Quantities ……………………………………………………………………….283
Answers to Assignment Questions ………………………………………………………………………….285

Details about the Ebook

Title: Fundamental Electrical and Electronics Principles

Language: English

Size: 3.5 MB

Pages: 304

Format: PDF

Category: Electronics Engineering

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